1: Sustainable 3D printing of lignocellulosics for biomedical applications

Author(s): Rubina Ajdary, Nazanin Zanjanizadeh Ezazi, Siqi Huan, Helder Santos, Orlando Rojas
Corresponding author: Orlando Rojas
Affiliation: Aalto University
E-mail: Ruina.ajdary@aalto.fi
Abstract:
Environmental impacts associated with human activities and related concerns have raised public awareness today more than ever. There is a growing emphasis by high profile campaigns and TV programmes to use environmentally sustainable and green materials as alternatives to plastics to minimize waste generation as well as improving energy efficiency. Natural wood has been one of the most commonly used and safe materials for products like structural elements in construction, buildings, furniture, et cetera. I am motivated to study the development of wood-derived materials for novel processing techniques and applications. The replacement of synthetic non-degradable materials by those derived from plants is a solution to most pressing needs of our society. My research develops 3D printing of both mono-component and novel biodegradable composites of nanocellulose, with optimized rheological behavior. My intended applications include such medical uses as cell culturing, drug loading, and tissue regeneration and particularly, cardiac patches. Challenges in 3D printing of nanocellulose, such as high water content and shrinkage after drying, will be addressed in my work. In addition, I will consider the scalability of nanocellulose 3D printing to satisfy the utilization of this green solution in large volume industries.
Key words: Nanocellulose, 3D printing, tissue engineering, cardiac patch

2: Eco-friendly and innovative catalytic surface modification of nanocellulose

Author(s): Rana Alimohammadzadeh, Italo Sanhueza, Anna Svedberg, Armando Cordova.
Corresponding author: Armando Cordova
Affiliation: Mid Sweden University
E-mail: Armando.cordova@miun.se
Abstract:
Over the past few decades, the market for bio-based products has been extended. nanocellulose, which can be extracted from plant cell wall, gets high attraction from research and industry due to its attractive properties. An intrinsic challenge is the hydroxyl moieties of the nanocellulose, which make it hydrophilic and renders aggregation. Consequently, a limiting factor is the incorporation of the nanocellulose into many polymer matrices that are typically hydrophobic. Thus, surface modification will lead to better dispersion in non-polar matrices. The advancement in constructing hydrophobic nanocellulose make it useful for coating industries with applications for example in marine vehicles, biomedical device and textiles. However, eco-friendly surface modification is not easy and usually requires activated and toxic reagents. We have developed eco-friendly and innovative catalytic surface modification, which the surface of cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) becomes ultrahydrophobic and can compete with the use of fluorocarbon compounds as the modifying agents. In addition, our method exhibit high versatility. Oxygen transfer rate (OTR) was measured for modified sample at 23°C and 80% relative humidity for 24h. The result revealed 77% decreasing of OTR in comparing with the unmodified CNC samples. Our results has potential for significant improvement of food packaging materials in the future.
Key words: Nanocellulose, Hydrophobicity, Barrier property, OTR, Contact angle.

3: Facile preparation of superhydrophobic solid wood surfaces

Author(s): Benjamin Arminger 1, Wolfgang Gindl-Altmutter 2, Christian Hansmann 1
Corresponding author: Benjamin Arminger
Affiliation: 1 Wood K plus – Competence Centre for Wood Composites and Wood Chemistry, Konrad- Lorenz-Straße 24, 3430 Tulln, Austria.
2 BOKU University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences – Institute of Wood Technology and Renewable Materials, Konrad-Lorenz-Straße 24, 3430 Tulln, Austria.
E-mail: b.arminger@wood-kplus.at
Abstract:
The prevention of excessive water uptake in wood in order to avert dimensional instabilities, decay and discolouration is a major challenge for wood-based applications. We developed a facile surface treatment to protect wood from liquid water uptake that does not require harsh process conditions or toxic solvents. Water-based and surfactant-free dispersions of sub-micron alkyl ketene dimer wax particles were prepared and sprayed onto beech (Fagus sylvatica) wood substrates. After the evaporation of water, the wax particles self-assembled into distinctive platelet structures, forming a thin and extremely water repellent wood finish. Even the most straightforward preparation method – i.e. simple blending preparation of the aqueous wax dispersion and consequent spraying and drying at room temperature – resulted in superhydrophobic wood surfaces. Dispersions prepared by means of ultrasonication consisted of even finer wax particles. When applied, they self-assembled to particularly homogeneous platelet structures, reaching water contact angles of up to 170°. Further, a slightly increased drying temperature had a positive influence on the progress of platelet formation. The implementation of sub-micro structures clearly reduced surface gloss but the wood colour and its natural appearance remained largely unaffected. The spraying method is cost-effective and easily scalable. It is not restricted by dimensional limitations and has the ability to turn even large surface areas of wood-based products from hydrophilic into superhydrophobic.
Key words: Superhydrophobicity, self-assembly, alkyl ketene dimer, wood surface, spraying.

4: Integrated forest and water governance across multiple levels: enablers and impediments in the era of climate change

Author(s): Eulalia Baulenas
Corresponding author: Eulalia Baulenas
Affiliation: Chair of Forest and Environmental Policy University of Freiburg
E-mail: eulalia.baulenas@ifp.uni-freiburg.de
Abstract:
Forests play a very important role concerning quantity and quality of water: they contribute to the filtering of pollutants, flood control and regulation of precipitation, among a wide range of other benefits including the provision of freshwater for human consumption and agriculture production. However, certain forest management or forest abandonment, can yield undesirable consequences to water bodies. In a moment in which the effects of climate change will increase the number of extreme water-related weather events such as droughts, storms and floods, and the impacts that these will have on forests, coordination between the forest and water sectors at multiple governance levels is considered crucial. Within the European Union (EU), diverse governance responses to these issues have emerged. This study aims at analyzing these responses and explore if and how public and private actors cooperate across the two sectors:
• The first step of the analysis provides a comparison of forest and water policies at national level across the EU Member States and explores the factors behind policy choices. Results show that strong forest and water industries enable the presence of forest and water integrated policies, and government economic support enables forest and water research projects.
• The second step focuses at the regional level. This step identifies how financial measures to support forest management to improve water quality resulted from the collaboration between the scientific community, water and forest regional authorities and representatives of the forest industry, despite an initial conflict between the sectors due to fees against forest management in watersheds.
• The third step makes use of a spatial-explicit agent-based model at the local level. This third step evidences that tailoring financial measures to the characteristics of forest owners is crucial for these actors to participate in such financial schemes. Without their participation, the effects of climate change were found to be devastating for the local area. Concluding the results from the three-level analysis, this study identifies that for collaboration strategies to be successful, the collaboration between public and private actors is key not only for the design of integrated forest and water policies but also to be successful in its implementation to combat the effects of climate change.
Key words: Forest sector, water sector, policy, instruments, governance enablers and impediments.

5: Understanding the wood-water relationship in brown-rot degradation of acetylated wood

Author(s): Greeley Beck
Corresponding author: Greeley Beck
Affiliation: Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research
E-mail: greeley.beck@nibio.no
Abstract:
Susceptibility of wood to fungal degradation shortens service life and is one of the primary factors limiting the use of wood in constructions today. Brown-rot fungi are particularly destructive due to their ability to rapidly depolymerize wood polysaccharides, compromising the structural integrity of wood products. Moreover, most wood used in constructions in the northern hemisphere is from coniferous wood species and brown-rot fungi are the most common organisms involved in the degradation of softwoods. Traditionally, biodegradation has been mitigated by treatments with biocides, e.g. creosote or copper‐chrome‐arsenic, but due to environmental and health concerns, the use of such substances is now restricted. Alternatively, resistance to fungal decay can be improved by chemical modification, such as acetylation. Chemical modifications have a nontoxic mode of action, but the exact mechanism behind the increased durability remains unclear. However, it is generally acknowledged that a critical factor contributing to enhanced decay resistance is moisture content reduction. My research focuses on elucidating the wood-moisture relationship in acetylated wood and its role in prevention of brown-rot degradation. A better understanding of how the protective mechanism functions in acetylated wood will help in the development and optimization of future wood modification systems.
Key words: Acetylation, brown-rot decay, deuterium exchange, hydroxyl accessibility, low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (LFNMR), gene expression, oxidative degradation

6: Investigations concerning screw‐press gluing with special focus on CLT/GLT ribbed plates

Author(s): DI Katarina Bratulic, DI Manfred Augustin, Univ.‐Prof. Dipl.‐Ing. Dr.techn. Gerhard Schickhofer
Corresponding author: Katarina Bratulic
Affiliation: holz.bau forschungs gmbh
E-mail: katarina.bratulic@tugraz.at
Abstract:
As an alternative to hydraulic presses, timber components can be joined by using the so‐called screw – press gluing (SPG). This gluing method is not only convenient for reinforcing and repairing purposes, but also for the assembling of structural timber composite members (e.g. CLT/GLT ribbed plates). Thereby, the clamping capacity of screws is used to induce the needed contact pressure between timber members during the curing time of adhesive. The distribution and the level of the realized contact pressure can be controlled by choosing an adequate screw‐grid in accordance with the properties of the glued timber parts and the clamping capacity of the used screws. Current standards (e.g. ÖNORM B 1995‐1‐1 (2015)) restrict the application of SPG to e.g. engineered wood products with a maximum thickness of 45 mm and recommend a maximum screw spacing of 150 mm. The aim of present contribution is to analytically describe and experimentally investigate the correlation between the main influencing factors on SPG and to optimize the chosen screw‐grid depending on the components (timber members, clamping capacities of screws and adhesive types). Focus is set on the composites with CLT which exceed the limits on thickness given in standards.
Key words: screw‐press gluing, cross laminated timber, glued laminated timber, ribbed plates

7: Development of a nanofibrous chitosan-cellulose biosorbent for the sequestration of copper ions in water

Author(s): Ilse Ileana Cárdenas Bates, Éric Loranger, Bruno Chabot
Corresponding author: Ilse Cardenas
Affiliation: Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières
E-mail: ilse.ileana.cardenas.bates@uqtr.ca
Abstract:
The pollution of fresh water by toxic heavy metals is a very important environmental and public issue. Although most heavy metals are required as micronutrients for humans, animals and plants, excessive amounts can produce a range of toxic effects. Therefore, the removal of these metals from industrial wastewater is a very important factor for the health of the population and the protection of the environment. To further reduce the concentration of these metals, we have proposed in this work to manufacture an eco-responsible sorbent material made from residues from the forest and fishing industry. This material will be able to be implanted at the end of the conventional industrial water treatment chain (tertiary treatment) in order to allow its partial recirculation into the process. The material will be made from chitosan (CS) and cellulose (Ce), the two most abundant natural polymers in the world, making the material more economical and biodegradable than current filters. This material will be produced using an electrospinning technique, which generates a nonwoven nanofibers porous mat. These nanofibers are advantageous because they have a high specific surface area which, combined with cellulose, provides the material with high adsorption capacity and mechanical strength.
Key words: Cellulose, Chitosan, Electrospinning, Nanofibers, Adsorption, Heavy metals

8: Microalgae production in industrial wastewater: novel implantation for the pulp and paper industry

Author (s): Cinq-Mars Marguerite, Bourdeau Nathalie, Mangin Patrice, Desgagné-Penix Isabel & Barnabé Simon.
Corresponding author: Cinq-Mars, Marguerite
Affiliation: I2E3/UQTR Institute of Innovations in Ecomaterials, Eco-products and Eco-energies (I2E3) – UQTR
E-mail: Marguerite.Cinq-Mars@uqtr.ca
Abstract:
Several strains of microalgae produce molecules with remarkable properties that can be valued in different products, such as biofuels, surfactants, or antimicrobial agents. Certain microalgae may be used to treat wastewater by absorbing the residual compounds as sources of nutrients, mainly when grown in a combination, a mixture of microorganisms. In present study, a native combination of microalgae-bacteria consisting primarily of Chlorella sp. is grown in industrial wastewater in a photobioreactor to identify the potential value-added molecules produced. These can be integrated into products of local industries in addition to reducing the cost of wastewater treatment in these same industries. The project will provide an opportunity for local industries to become more environmentally friendly by incorporating bio-based molecules in their products while reducing the cost of managing their wastewater. Furthermore, a common problem when scaling up microalgal culture is the difficulty of harvesting the microalgae. The solution we propose is to use paper makers equipment, e.g. a paper machine for harvesting microalgae. In the context of the decline of the pulp and paper industry in Quebec, reusing such unused equipment is a promising avenue for developing profitable large-scale microalgae culture.
Key words: Microalgae, wastewater, bio-based molecules, Chlorella, pulp and paper industry

9: Modified wood in outdoor load-bearing structures

Author(s): Karin Forsman, Erik Serrano, Henrik Danielsson
Corresponding author: Karin Forsman
Affiliation: Div. of Structural Mechanics, Lund University
E-mail: karin.forsman@construction.lth.se
Abstract:
Wood is an attractive building material thanks to its low carbon dioxide emissions. However, due to its hygroscopic characteristics it must be protected in outdoor conditions. Acetylation enables an environmentally friendly way to increase both durability and dimensional stability of wood without introducing harmful substances as is traditionally done when using preservative treated timber. Acetylated wood is commercially available although main areas of use are for non-structural applications such as claddings and facades. To enable the use of modified wood in load-bearing structures, the impact on the mechanical properties of the acetylation process must be examined, to ensure reliable designs. There is a lack of knowledge regarding the fracture characteristics of acetylated wood, characteristics which are important e.g. in the design of mechanical joints. The objectives of this project are to investigate the effects of acetylation on fracture characteristics as well as structural members, aiming at identifying if design provisions must be revised to also include modified wood. Unlike commercially available acetylated wood, consisting of Radiata pine, this project considers native wood species, namely young Scots pine and birch. These are seldom used in outdoor conditions due to their low durability and dimensional stability. By enhancements of native wood species and evaluation of their structural behaviour, this project aims at adding a structural value to domestic forestry.
Key words: Acetylation, Chemical modification, Fracture characteristics, Fracture energy, Load-bearing structures, Modified wood

10: Carboxylated cellulose nanofibre-­‐based membranes and their performance in proton exchange membrane fuel cells

Author(s): Valentina Guccini, Annika Carlson, Shun Yu, Göran Lindbergh, Rakel Wreland Lindström and German Salazar-­Alvarez
Corresponding author: Valentina Guccini
Affiliation: Stockholm University
E-­‐mail: valentina.guccini@mmk.su.se
Abstract:
Cellulose nonofibres extracted from wood are characterized by hhigh environmental compatibility and high intrinsic mechanical and chemical properties. The development of proton exchange membrane fuel ceslls (PEMFCs) based on cellulose nanofibres can offer an answer to the growing need of more sustainable energy technologies. Nafion has been the industry standard for the fabrication of the proton exchange membrane (PEM). Besides having high cost and large environmental impact, the conductivity exponentially decreases when the relative humidity (RH) is lowered from 90 to 50 %. In this study, ultra-thin carboxylated cellulose nanofibres (CNF) are used to fabricate PEM with an in-situ fuel cell conductivity of about 2 mS cm-1 at 30 °C and between 65 and 95 % RH, which is around two orders of magnitued larger than previously reported literatur values. The conductivity was correlated with the membranes’ water uptake and the evolution of their internal structure as a function of RH was determined using small angle X-ray scattering. The CNF membranes presented in this study outperform Nafion in terms of much lower sensitivity to changes in RH. Thanks to their environmental compatibility and promising fuel cell performance, CNF should be further considered fo use in a new generation PEMFCs.
Key words: cellulose nanofibres, proton exchange membrane, fuel cell, small angle X-­‐ray scattering

11: Production of reactive lignin mix through catalytic solvolysis of organosolv lignin

Author(s): Syed Farhan Hashmi
Corresponding author: Syed Farhan Hashmi
Affiliation: Aalto University
E-mail: syed.f.hashmi@aalto.fi
Abstract:
Several million tons of phenol formaldehyde (PF) resin is produced each year to be used as adhesive in wood products such as plywood. The substitution of petroleum based phenol with bio-based chemicals will lower the carbon footprint of PF resin and increase bioeconomy. The high amount of methoxy groups and low amount of reactive sites in lignin makes it a challenging feedstock for phenol formaldehyde (PF) resin applications. This research demonstrates a method to convert organosolv lignin into a reactive lignin mix rich in monoaromatic phenolic units with enhanced reactivity such as guaiacol and 3-methoxycatechol. Organosolv lignin was reacted in a novel biphasic system of 2-methyltetrahydrofuran / water in the presence of sodium formate as homogeneous catalyst for one hour at 310 °C. The monoaromatic phenolic content of the obtained reactive lignin mixture was 22 wt %. The reactive lignin mix could be used as a replacement for phenol in a PF resin providing lignin a higher value than just fuel.
Key words: organosolve lignin. depolymerization, monoaromatics

13: High-throughput processing of flexible functional devices

Author(s): Rajesh Koppolu
Corresponding author: Rajesh Koppolu
Affiliation: Åbo Akademi University
E-mail: Rajesh.koppolu@abo.fi
Abstract:
The traditional pulp and paper industry, has seen in recent years a slowdown in growth, especially in developed markets such as in U.S.A and Europe, mostly due to growing competition from electronic media. Therefore, there is a need to develop processes to create new value-added products for the forest-based industry. The main objective of this research is to understand the requirements enabling high-throughput processing of complex functional materials on flexible substrates. The emphasis is on solution processing of functional materials into thin layers utilizing high-throughput processes. The increased understanding would allow the fabrication of novel devices on flexible substrates on a large scale, thus bringing down the manufacturing costs and making the processes economically viable. The objectives can be further divided into two main sub objectives:
1. Understanding (i) rheology and structure formation of functional material-based dispersions and solutions, (ii) surface properties of the substrates and (iii) the compatibility between the functional materials and the substrates.
2. Demonstrating proof of concept batch and roll-to-roll processes for: – Nanocellulose based barrier coatings for packaging applications. – Nano-graphite/graphene based conductive coatings on paper/metal foils for energy storage applications. – Printed drug delivery systems for personalized medicines.
Key words: Barrier coatings, nanocellulose, energy storage, nano-graphite/graphene, printed medicine, roll-to-roll coatings

14: Impact of Structural Changes on Energy Efficiency of Finnish Pulp and Paper Industry

Author(s): Satu Kähkönen, Esa Vakkilainen
Corresponding author: Satu Kähkönen
Affiliation: LUT University, Lappeenranta, Finland
E-mail: satu.kahkonen@lut.fi
Abstract:
A key challenge in prevention of global warming is how to increase energy efficiency, to be able to deal with increased fossil CO2 emissions from rising energy usage. Increasing energy efficiency will decrease energy usage and is in a key role in emission mitigation. The focus is the pulp and paper industry, which is energyintensive. Development of industrial energy efficiency has been studied before but e.g. the role of industrial transformation is still mostly unknown. The knowledge must be improved, to be able to predict future developments in the most effective way. In this research, impact of various production unit closures and startups on energy efficiency of Finnish pulp and paper industry was studied utilizing statistical analysis. Results indicate that about 20% of the Finnish pulp and paper industry energy efficiency improvement between 2011 and 2017 is caused by the major structural changes. The rest, 80% of the progress was mainly due to improved technology and more optimal operational modes. Additional finding suggests that modern mill start-ups have a significantly greater potential to reduce energy consumption than old mill closures.
Key words: energy efficiency, pulp and paper industry, energy consumption, structural change

15: Industrial Log Architecture in Finland – Perceptions and Architectonic Quality in the Scope of Tectonics

Author(s): Matti Lakkala
Corresponding author: Matti Lakkala
Affiliation: Oulu School of Architecture (University of Oulu)
E-mail: matti.lakkala@oulu.fi
Abstract:
Log construction has quickly gained popularity in Finland. This millennia-old technique has evolved into contemporary , industrial product. Log – a product of solid wood – is local, ecological and healthy, explaining its “renaissance.” For architectural design, log is currently very complex construction material. The cultural history combined with novel development of the material lead to contradictions of traditional and contemporary, natural and industrial as well as rural and urban. This background creates the need for my research, which in the scope of architectural design aims at enhancing understanding of industrially produced log as a construction material and of characteristics of architectonic quality of industrial log architecture. Results are based on perceptions of interviewees, but also on concrete examples of contemporary log architecture, and are of benefit for practicing architects and log industry in product development and marketing. The results of this study help to improve the quality – and therefore also the popularity – of future log buildings. Besides positive ecological impacts, this can lead to economic benefits for log industry and Finnish society in general, due to the export potential of log. Increase in number and quality of log buildings could lead to positive effects for built environment and its users in general.
Key words: Log architecture, Architectonic quality, Wood architecture, Perceptions of wood, Timber construction

16: Increasing evidence of soil carbon sequestration in response to nitrogen enrichment: mechanisms and organisms involved

Author(s): Nadia Maaroufi 1,2, Annika Nordin 1, Kristin Palmqvist 3, Niles Hasselquist 1, Benjamin Forsmark 1, Nicholas Rosenstock 4, Lisbet Bach 3, Håkan Wallander 4, Michael Gundale 1
Corresponding author: Nadia Maaroufi
Affiliation: 1 Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, 2 University of Bern, 3 Umeå University, 4 Lund University
E-mail: nadia.maaroufi@slu.se
Abstract:
Anthropogenic activities have increased nitrogen and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. In boreal forests, net primary production is often limited by nitrogen availability, and there has been substantial speculation and interest in whether nitrogen deposition could promote carbon (C) uptake in these N-limited forests. There is increasing evidence that nitrogen enhances C pools in forest vegetation. However, it remains unclear why soil C pools increase in response to nitrogen. Soil C pools are of particular interest in northern forests because they are often larger and more stable than C in standing vegetation. Although many studies have helped to clarify the magnitude by which nitrogen deposition enhances C sequestration in forest vegetation, there remains a paucity of studies evaluating how soils respond. The aim of this study was to investigate the magnitude to which soil C sequestration in boreal forests responds to nitrogen enrichments, and to explore different mechanisms and the soil biota involved through which changes in soil C may occur. This work was conducted in two long-term experiments in northern Sweden. Understanding why soil C accumulates in response to nitrogen is important for understanding the forest ecosystem long-term capacity to take up and store C, and thus to mitigate increasing anthropogenic CO2 emissions.
Key words: Litter decomposition, soil microbes, fungi, soil respiration, global change

17: Photoperiodic and temperature signals mediate seasonal control of shoot architecture in trees

Author(s): Jay P. Maurya, Pal Miskolczi, Rajesh Kumar Singh, Rishikesh P. Bhalerao
Corresponding author: Rishikesh P. Bhalerao
Presenting author: Jay P. Maurya
Affiliation: Umeå Plant Science Centre, Department of Forest Genetics and Plant Physiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SE-901 87 Umeå, Sweden
E-mail: rishi.bhalerao@slu.se, jay.prakash@slu.se
Abstract:
Growth of aerial shoot of plants mainly depends on the activity of the shoot apical meristem. Shoot branching in plants is an important aspect of their architecture development and productivity. The lateral branches of the plants are produced from the axillary meristems which possess the same developmental potential as primary meristems. These axillary meristems result in the development of lateral buds that can either stay dormant or develop into branches after activation. Most of our knowledge on shoot branching is derived from analysis in annual plants like Arabidopsis and pea. In contrast, how branching is regulated in trees and how the control of branching is integrated with annual cycles of growth remains poorly understood in perennials. We have identified a genetic and molecular network which explains how the shoot branching is regulated in trees of temperate and boreal parts of the world throughout the year. We have found that TFL1 (TERMINAL FLOWER 1) and LAP1 (LIKE APETALA 1) are at the center of this network, where LAP1 acts downstream of TFL1. The shoot architecture shows developmental plasticity. Control of shoot architecture has great biotechnological and societal impacts. It will help in biomass control and development of single stemmed trees for forest industries.
Key words: Shoot branching, axillary meristem, Arabidopsis, TERMINAL FLOWER 1, LIKE APETALA 1

18: Forest pathogens and wildlife under a changing climate – concrete examples from time-series data

Author(s): Markus Melin, Heli Viiri, Lauri Mehtätalo, Pekka Helle, Katja Ikonen, Olli-Pekka Tikkanen, Tuula Packalen
Corresponding author: Markus Melin
Affiliation: Natural Resources Institute Finland
E-mail: markus.melin@luke.fi
Abstract:
Predictions on the effect of climate change on forest ecosystems are highly important. Yet, they may fail to draw the attention they deserve due to a long time-span. Indeed, if something is simulated to happen in the next 200 years, it is not topical today, making it less interesting in this hectic age of impatiences. Here, I draw together time-series data on wildlife populations and abundance of forest pests. I will focus on two groups of species: 1.) wildlife that changes into a white winter coat and 2.) forest pests that have expanded their range to Finland. Results show that the changes that have happened in boreal climate have already influenced a range of species and further changes are taking place as we speak. Wildlife species are losing their winter-time camouflage due to the loss of snow cover and are thus exposed to predation, leading into a decline in their numbers. At the same time, pest insects that were once thought to be problematic only in central Europe have expanded to Fennoscandia due to milder winters, and their density is already high enough to cause new kinds of forest damage. Therfore, how climate change affects wildlife- and forest management is not a question for the next centuries. It is a phenomenon that has been active for decades, as made evident by time-series data.
Key words: Climate change, forest management, wildlife management, forest damage, population ecology, forest ecology

19: Towards high tenacity cellulose fibers for polyester replacement

Author(s): Kaniz Moriam, Kaarlo Niemen, Daisuke Sawada, Michael Hummel, Herbert Sixta
Corresponding author: Herbert Sixta, Aalto University herbert.sixta@aalto.fi
Affiliation: Aalto University, Department of Bioproducts and Biosystems, School of Chemical Engineering
E-mail: most.moriam@aalto.fi
Abstract:
Ioncell-F is a recently developed process to produce man-made cellulosic fibers from ionic liquid solutions by dry-jet wet spinning. Ioncell-F is an environmentally friendly process and considered as an alternative to the viscose and N-methylmorpholine Noxide (NMMO)-based Lyocell processes1. The ionic liquid ‘1,5-diazabicyclo [4.3.0] non-5-ene acetate’ is used as excellent cellulose solvent allowing for a rapid dissolution at moderate temperatures and subsequent shaping into continuous filaments2. Highly orientated cellulose fibers with high tenacity are obtained by coagulation in cold-water bath3. These staple fibers are further converted to yarn and applied in knitting and weaving process. High tenacity of cellulose fibers compromises the high fiber elongation and vice versa. In this study, using Ioncell-F technology, regenerated cellulose fibers with high tenacity and elongation were produced via different spinneret geometry and selective pulp. Cellulose fibers with such properties yield better tensile strength and toughness. The special Ioncell fibers can be used in sustainable textiles with a long life and in textiles or technical applications where high toughness is required such as in workwear. Considering the higher strength of the fiber, we hypothesize that this fiber might be used as microfiber, which might result lighter yet strong & durable fabric.
Key words: Ioncell-F, man-made cellulose fibers, eco-friendly textile fibers, regenerated cellulose 2 (2)
Reference 1. Michud A, Tanttu M, Asaadi S, et al. Ioncell-F: Ionic liquid-based cellulosic textile fibers as an alternative to viscose and lyocell. Text Res J. 2016;86(5):543-552.
2. Hummel M, Michud A, Tanttu M, et al. Ionic liquids for the production of man-made cellulosic fibers: Opportunities and challenges. In: Rojas OJ, ed. Cellulose chemistry and properties: Fibers, nanocelluloses and advanced materials. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016:133-168. https://doi.org/10.1007/12_2015_307. 10.1007/12_2015_307. 3. Hauru LKJ, Hummel M, Michud A, Sixta H. Dry jet-wet spinning of strong cellulose filaments from ionic liquid solution. Cellulose. 2014;21(6):4471-4481.

20: TEMPO oxidized nanofibers from thermomechanical pulp: applications and semi-industrial scale production

Author(s): David Myja, Éric Loranger, Robert Lanouette
Corresponding author: David Myja
Affiliation: Institute of Innovations in Ecomaterials, Eco-products and Eco-energies (I2E3) – UQTR
E-mail: David.myja@uqtr.ca
Abstract:
Uses of wood derivatives in various applications is a good pathway to reach stringent environmental goals and, furthermore, promote fossil product replacement. Many research groups have developed new applications with nanocelluloses produced from chemical pulp, composed almost exclusively of cellulose. Thermomechanical pulp (TMP) is another important pulp market, especially in North America. TMP presents a much higher mass yield and has a lower production cost than chemical pulps but contains hemicelluloses and lignin with cellulose. With a chemical modification, the 4-acetamido-TEMPO oxidation, we succeeded in producing highly charged nanofibers from TMP. The nanofibers were utilized to develop transparent films which could be used, when coupled with polypyrrole, as a support for a semiconductor material. Nanofibers are already integrated in existing paper products to increase tensile strength. Such addition also improves paper optical properties by increased mineral filler retention. Having developed a few applications, we have researched and developed a semiindustrial nanofibers production process using a conventional TMP production line. In the end, if the oxidation could not be directly implanted in the usual TMP process, we found that a TMP refiner can be used as a very efficient disperser to produce significant quantities of nanofibers.
Key words: Thermomechanical pulp, nanofiber, TEMPO oxidation, biocomposite, paper, semi-industrial production

21: Functionalization of wood and wood-based materials

Author(s): Vasileios Oikonomou, Eleni Stavrinidou
Corresponding author: Eleni Stavrinidou
Affiliation: Linköping University – Laboratory of Organic Electronics
E-mail: vasileios.oikonomou@liu.se, eleni.stavrinidou@liu.se
Abstract:
The functionalization of wood and wood-based materials with organic electronics will have as outcome biohybrid systems, either in the form of a living plant or its products. The research in this field, of electronic plants, is highly intriguing and promising, since the merging of organic electronics with natural materials can yield novel platforms for a wide variety of applications, including sensoring systems, regulation of plant physiology and energy harvesting from photosynthesis. As the list of applications increases, so does the number of the obstacles to overcome. However, multidisciplinary research and effective collaborations between academia and forest industry are the main pillars to succeed in this field. The synthesis of new advanced materials able to be embodied within the tree pith or enhancing wood-based products, is by itself the definition of the collaboration between the academic expertise and the wellestablished forest-based industry. Since the collaboration of both is crucial for the development of useful and meaningful products for the whole society.
Key words: electronic plants, wood functionalization.

22: Energy Efficient Fibrillation of Cellulose Fibers using an Ultrasound Reactor

Author(s): Taraka Pamidi, Örjan Johansson, Torbjörn Löfqvist
Corresponding author: Taraka Pamidi
Affiliation: Dept. of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources of Engineering, Luleå University of Technology, SE-97187 Luleå, Sweden
E-mail: taraka.pamidi@ltu.se
Abstract:
The pulp and paper industry is in continuous need for energy-efficient production processes. Therefore, there is a focus in reducing electrical energy use in the production of paper. The most energy demanding processes are related to fibrillation, which in some cases use up to 80% of required electrical power, with a net efficiency of 1%. The presented work focus on ultrasound controlled cavitation in concentrating the processing energy to provide an energy efficient development of cellulose fibers. The objectives are to develop a scalable cavitation reactor to obtain energy-efficient fibrillation of cellulose fibers aiming at reducing the energy use by 50%. Our goal is to develop a methodology based on multiphysic simulation for the design of an alternative refiner based on ultrasound cavitation. The reactor concept is of a flow through type where cavitation bubbles are initiated in the fiber suspension by the pressure release when the pulp flow through a venturi nozzle. The induced cavitation bubbles are collapsed by high intensity ultrasound at resonant frequencies. The collapsing bubbles and their associated shock waves modify the fiber wall properties which enables fibrillation. Energy efficient fibrillation of cellulose fibers is therefore possible to achieve through an optimized combination of hydrodynamic and ultrasonic controlled cavitation. Initial results shows a positive effect on fiber quality. However, further optimization of process parameters like temperature and static pressure is required.
Key words: Ultrasonic cavitation, Hydrodynamic cavitation, Cellulose fibers, Ultrasound reactor

23: Improvement of dimensional stability and fungal properties of wood modified by the Maillard reaction

Author(s): Kelly Peeters, Erik Larnøy, Callum A.S. Hill
Corresponding author: Dr. Kelly Peeters
Affiliation: InnoRenew CoE
E-mail: Kelly.peeters@innorenew.eu
Abstract:
Utilization of wood as a building material is subjected to increasing interest due to its intrinsic properties and ability to fix carbon dioxide. In spite of its numerous advantages, wood can shrink and swell to a large extent and is susceptible to deterioration by fungi. Recently, we started to develop a wood modification procedure, based on the Maillard reaction, which is non-harmful to the environment and is based on non-toxic, cheap and water-soluble chemicals (citric acid, sugars and amino acids) reacted by heat. Penetration of these chemicals into the wood cell wall and its subsequent polymers will cause bulking of the cell wall, increasing the dimensional stability of wood and decreasing fungal attacks. The best bulking was obtained when or lysine, glucose and citric acid, or ascorbic acid, lysine and citric acid were reacted at 160°C. Both treatments were tested for their susceptibility towards brown and white rot fungi via the mini-block test. Modified wood performed better than untreated wood. Results of this research contribute to the increased use of wood products as they can extend the area of applications for the utilization of native-grown wood species.
Key words: wood modification, Maillard reaction, dimensional stability, fungal degradation testing

24: Green bleaching: bleaching with air and water only

Author(s): Frédéric Pouyet
Corresponding author: Frédéric Pouyet
Affiliation: RISE
E-mail: Frederic.pouyet@ri.se
Abstract:
What if bleaching lines were even greener? Air and water have the full potential to make it possible. On their own. To make white kraft pulp, coloured compounds (such as lignin) and structures inducing yellowing (such as hexenuronic acid) must be chemically modified or removed. Air contains one of the main bleaching oxidants: oxygen. If needed, this oxygen can be turned into another stronger oxidant: ozone. Another popular reagent can also be produced from oxygen and dihydrogen (produced by water hydrolysis): hydrogen peroxide. In this vision, one of the key oxidants is ozone. The reactions of ozone were investigated, and new mechanisms explaining the degradation of cellulose by ozone were discovered. Ways to limit their occurrence were found, and this new understanding of ozone could be used in other industrial fields, or to tailor-make pulps for specific new cellulosic applications. Many opportunities are included in the Green Bleaching vision (drastic effluent reduction, full caustic soda recovery, etc.), but some challenges remain (layout, energy, etc.). The results already obtained could pave the way to economical and low impact processes, and Green Bleaching might be a step for yet another concept: Green Pulping
Key words: Bleaching; Low impact processes; Peroxide; Ozone; Green bleaching.

25: Improving performance and energy efficiency of biomass supply through machine alteration and organisational redesign

Author: Robert Prinz
Corresponding author: Robert Prinz
Affiliation: Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke)
E-mail: robert.prinz@luke.fi
Abstract:
The aim of this recent work was to analyse and improve the performance, fuel economy and energy efficiency of the forest chip supply system. The analysis of four case studies involved individual machines and the entire forest chip supply system. Therefore two study methods were used: work study and discrete event simulation (DES). Work study carried out to investigate the performance of individual machines and their alteration; the DES method was used for investigating the organisational redesign of the forest fuel supply system. The work included the findings of the four case studies with the focus on the redesign of specific aspects of the forest chip supply chain, the use of alternative terminals for chip supply, the interdependencies of chipper and chip trucks and the performance of individual machines after machine alteration. This recent research work included the proposal of an integrated approach whereby the state-of-the-art forest technology and current biomass supply ideally can be upgraded to achieve new, improved levels of performance and energy efficiency. This can have an effect on the forest-based industry where, e.g., terminal use improves the annual use of the supply fleet and enhances fuel supply security to the plant thereby reducing the need for supplementary fuel and where vehicles with increased carrying capacity can improve the cost competitiveness.
Key words: forest biomass; biomass supply chain; work study; discrete-event simulation; chipper; chip truck

26: Hyper Inertia Micro-Fluidization: A Model Process to Reveal the Fibre Disintegration into Cellulose Nanofibrils

Author(s): Jakob D. Redlinger-Pohn 1, Christophe Brouzet 1, Claes Holmqvist 2, Fredrik Lundell 1, Daniel L. Söderberg 1,3
Corresponding author: Jakob D. Redlinger-Pohn
Affiliation: 1 KTH Mechanics 2 RISE 3 Treesearch
E-mail: jakobrp@kth.se
Abstract:
Cellulose nanofibrils are sourced from cellulose fibres through high-intensity mechanical disintegration, for example, refining or homogenization. That is via an energy transfer from a mechanical driving unit to the fluid on the fibre. Despite industrial applications, this energy transfer is yet not fully understood. The goal of the Hyper Inertia Micro-Fluidization project is to provide insight into the fibre fibrillation as a basis for rational process design. Specifically, we model the homogenization processes in which a fibre suspension is driven through rectangular channels with dimensions in the order of 100 μm by a pressure exceeding 1000 bars. Fibres in the suspension pass through regions of (i) high acceleration, (ii) high shear and (iii) low static pressure. To track the structural changes of the fibre we record suspension flow images at a temporal and spatial resolution of 1 μs and 1 μm, respectively. The channels are exchangeable facilitating geometrical parameter tests for process intensification and optimization. First images present (i) fibres at the inlet being torn over the edges and accelerated into the channel, and (ii) fibres at the outlet with segments blown-up along their length. In the ongoing studies, we will change the channel design and vary acceleration and shear magnitude as well as the chance of cavitation. The results reveal the interplay and relative importance of these phenomena in the fibrillation process.
Key words: Cellulose nanofibrils, Mechanical disintegration, Homogenization, Microfluidization, High-speed imaging.

27: Hydrogen-induced stress corrosion cracking (HISCC) of self-tapping screws applied in different timber products

Author(s): Andreas Ringhofer, Gerhard Schickhofer
Corresponding author: Andreas Ringhofer
Affiliation: Institute of Timber Engineering and Wood Technology, Graz University of Technology
E-mail: andreas.ringhofer@tugraz.at
Abstract:
Due to their simple and economic installation without predrilling as well as their high axial load bearing capacity, self-tapping screws have become probably the most relevant fasteners in contemporary timber engineering. To achieve this high axial load bearing capacity as well as to enable an insertion without predrilling especially in timber products made of hardwood species, the self-tapping screws have to feature a high yield strength, even beyond 1,000 MPa. This property is usually achieved by hardening, which takes place after forming the thread. Metals featuring such a high strength together with a core and surface hardness above 400 HV are, unfortunately, very sensitive to hydrogen-induced stress corrosion cracking (HISCC), a sudden and brittle failure mode. Beside the given material and loading conditions, this failure mode demands in addition the existence of absorbable hydrogen (H) in the atmosphere around the material. In case of selftapping screws, such an environment is given by acid corrosion, taking place in timber with low pH (oak, beech, Douglas fir, larch) and high moisture content (> 16 %). In the present contribution, an initial experimental campaign with regard to HISCC of self-tapping timber screws, including long-term load tests and metallurgic examinations, is presented. Thereby, possible influencing parameters, such as the steel strength, the hardness procedure, the surface coating, the wood species and the moisture content were systematically varied. The outcomes indicate a vulnerable failure behavior, especially of carbonitrided screws situated in oak wood, which was exposed to service class 2 and 3 conditions according to EN 1995-1-1. These first investigations serve as a basis for an interdisciplinary follow-up research project with a significant impact on the reliability of a timber structure.
Key words: self-tapping timber screws, hydrogen-induced stress corrosion cracking, acid corrosion, long-term testing, hardwood

28: Sustainable carbon capture and chemicals production with functional structures from nanocelluloses and photosynthetic microalgae

Author(s): Ville Rissanen, Sergey Kosourov, Yagut Allahverdiyeva, Tekla Tammelin
Corresponding author: Ville Rissanen
Affiliation: VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland
E-mail: ville.rissanen@vtt.fi
Abstract:
We develop functional structures from nanocelluloses and photosynthetic microalgae for efficient carbon capture and sustainable biocatalytic production of fuels and chemicals. These renewable platforms utilize CO2 and sunlight as virtually unlimited energy sources, promoting a transition towards circular low-carbon bioeconomy across multiple industrial sectors. Using microalgae for chemicals production carries a great promise due to their high theoretical chemical conversion efficiency, but the traditional photobioreactors based on suspension culturing can harness only a small fraction of that potential. However, by immobilizing the microalgae cells within a porous and transparent nanocellulose matrix, it is possible to significantly improve cell viability and light utilization efficiency, while simultaneously decreasing water and energy consumption. Moreover, the use of nanocelluloses brings many advantages over previously studied immobilization materials. Besides being biocompatible and highly tuneable, their innate hydrophilic and hygroscopic nature and high surface area enables favourable water and gas transition properties, while the nanoscaled fibrillar network provides mechanical stability and control over the density/porosity structure. This concept has the potential to trigger a paradigm shift in microalgae biotechnology and promote the generation of high-value products form forest-based materials, thus creating novel and exciting opportunities to both business sectors.
Key words: CO2 capture, nanocellulose, microalgae, photosynthesis, biofuels, chemicals production

29: From Waste to Wealth: From Kraft Lignin to Mobile Energy Storage

Author(s): Philipp Schlee, Omid Hosseinaei, Per Tomani, Magda Titirici
Corresponding author: Magda Titirici, Per Tomani
Affiliation: Imperial College London, RISE AB, Stockholm
E-mail: m.titirici@imperial.ac.uk, per.tomani@ri.se
Abstract:
Societies worldwide have undergone a rapid change in lifestyle towards high mobility and availability. Digital technologies coupled with Internet-based devices enable everyone to access a vast amount of information at anytime from anywhere, if energy on-the-go is supplied. Concurrently, man-made climate change urges us to electrify the transportation sector. All these developments put tremendous pressure on mobile energy storage. Simultaneously, the pulp and paper industry is in the process of an enormous transformation from sole paper- to integrated forest bioproduct mills. Accepting both challenges we use Kraft lignin, the underutilized by-product of papermaking, as sole precursor for the manufacture of flexible electrospun lignin carbon nanofiber mats. These mats exhibit good electrical conductivity, a highly accessible nanoporosity and high degree of flexibility. These properties make them ideal candidates for electrodes in new mobile energy storage devices, which will rather be integrated than separate components. Tested in aqueous supercapacitors the lignin carbon nanofibers exhibit extremely high rate capability with maximum power densities of 60 kW/kg and high energy densities of 8 Wh/kg at slow rates which is attributed to the good accessibility of the nanopores. In organic supercapacitors energy densities of up to 35 Wh/kg were achieved.
Key words: Lignin, Carbon fibers, Supercapacitors, Energy storage

30: A new class of solvents for the biorefinery

Author(s): Helen Schneider, Svitlana Filonenko, Markus Antonietti
Corresponding author: Helen Schneider
Affiliation: Max Planck Institute of Colloids and Interfaces
E-mail: Helen.Schneider@mpikg.mpg.de
Abstract:
The increasing need for green solvents has promoted the development of alternative reaction media such as deep eutectic solvents (DES). These solvents are defined as eutectic mixtures between Lewis acids and bases, so that the freezing point of the mixture is lower than of its individual components. Since the components can be varied and adapted to the respective solute, DES can be labelled as designer solvents. This advantage, together with their low vapour pressures is something they have in common with ionic liquids. However, DES offer additional advantages: they have generally a much lower toxicity and are often biodegradable, they are easy to prepare and their components are mostly available at low costs. DES are therefore attractive solvents for the biorefinery. Research for this application has really only started in the past decade and has predominantly focused on well-known DES, based on choline chloride. In our research, we turn to a completely unexplored class of DES with unique properties. Based on ammonium formate, these solvents offer the advantage of having low viscosities, which is generally rare for DES. Furthermore, they may not only serve as the reaction media but can also take on the role of an amination reagent for the production of higher value products. Our research focuses on lignin and starch and investigates the potential of the mentioned DES to solubilize and modify those biomacromolecules.
Key words: Deep eutectic solvents, ammonium formate, lignin amination, starch solubilisation

31: Formation mechanisms of micro- and nanoplastics and related additives and their migration mechanisms on land and aquatic environment from virgin and recycled fossil and biobased plastics

Author(s): Anna Tenhunen
Corresponding author:
Affiliation: VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd
E-mail: anna.tenhunen@vtt.fi
Abstract:
A circular economy should be based on the principles of designing out waste and pollution, keeping products in use and materials in the material loop whilst regenerating the natural systems. The current plastics economy is reliant on virgin fossil feedstock and the take-make-dispose model creates well-known global environmental and social problems. The plastics economy needs to be redesigned – how do we make, use and reuse plastics, the societal necessity, in the future? It is estimated that by focusing on higher value products, like applications replacing conventional plastics, the added value of the forest sector could be doubled by 2050 in Finland. Shifting from virgin fossils as a feedstock for plastics requires new innovations – it needs to be substituted as much as possible with virgin biobased feedstock like wood-biomass. To resolve the end-of-life-management issues, the materials need to be kept in the loop as long as possible. To do that, efficient recycling – for both fossil and biobased materials – needs to be in place targeting closed-loop recycling where the value of the material is kept and not downgraded. As the aim is to find applications as high in value as possible for the virgin biobased feedstock as well as the recycled polymers, it is important to know potential effects of released micro- and nanoplastics and related additives used with the polymers. That is why I have chosen as my PhD topic to focus on understanding the mechanisms of formation and migration of micro- and nanoplastics from different virgin and recycled fossiland biobased plastics and their effects, including possible ecotoxicity, on land and aquatic environment as well as review the overall sustainability of these chosen different alternatives.
Key words: Circular plastics, bioplastics, biopolymer, polymer, conventional plastics, microplastics, nanoplastics, additives, agricultural soils, ecotoxicity